Pipe smoking differs from cigarette smoke because the smoke tends to be more alkaline than cigarette smoke and thus does not need to be directly inhaled to sustain high levels of nicotine addiction. Moreover, the amount of tobacco placed in the pipe means the pipe smoker and non-smokers that are exposed to the smoke may be exposed to smoke equivalent to that from several cigarettes.
- The relative risk for lip cancer with pipe smoking is 1.5 times more than a non-smoker.
- Men are 5.7 times more likely to develop oral cancer than non-smokers.
- Women are 4.9 times more likely to develop oral cancer than non-smokers which is even greater than those associated with cigarette smoking.
- Pipe smoking doubles the risk of airway damage that leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
- Smoking pipes contribute to gum disease, stained teeth, bad breath and tooth loss. On average pipe smokers averaged four missing teeth.